Mergers and Acquisition – A Case Study and Analysis of HP-Compaq Merger

Brief Description

The following is a quick description of the 2 corporations:


It all started within the yr 1938 when two electrical engineering graduates from Stanford University referred to as William Hewlett and David Packard began their enterprise in a storage in Palo Alto. In a yr’s time, the partnership referred to as Hewlett-Packard was made and by the yr 1947, HP was integrated. The firm has been prospering ever since as its income grew from 5 and half million in 1951 to about three billion in 1981. The tempo of progress knew no bounds as HP’s web income went as much as 42 billion in 1997. Starting with manufacturing audio oscillators, the corporate made its first pc within the yr 1966 and it was by 1972 that it launched the idea of private computing by a calculator first which was additional superior into a private pc within the yr 1980. The firm can be recognized for the laser-printer which it launched within the yr 1985.


The firm is best referred to as Compaq Computer Corporation. This was firm that began itself as a private pc firm within the yr 1982. It had the appeal of being referred to as the most important producers of private computing gadgets worldwide. The firm was shaped by two senior managers at Texas Instruments. The title of the corporate had come from-“Compatibility and Quality”. The firm launched its first pc within the yr 1983 after at a value of 2995 . In spite of being moveable, the issue with the pc was that it appeared to be a suitcase. Nevertheless, there have been large industrial advantages from the pc because it bought greater than 53,000 models within the first yr with a income technology of 111 million .

Reasons for the Merger

A quite simple query that arises right here is that, if HP was progressing at such an amazing tempo, what was the rationale that the corporate needed to merge with Compaq? Carly Fiorina, who grew to become the CEO of HP within the yr 1999, had a key function to play within the merger that came about in 2001. She was the primary lady to have taken over as CEO of such a giant firm and the primary outsider too. She labored very effectively as she travelled greater than 250,000 miles within the first yr as a CEO. Her primary purpose was to modernize the tradition of operation of HP. She laid nice emphasis on the worthwhile sides of the enterprise. This reveals that she was very extravagant in her strategy as a CEO. In spite of the expansion available in the market worth of HP’s share from 54.43 to 74.48 , the corporate was nonetheless inefficient. This was as a result of it couldn’t meet the targets attributable to a failure of each firm and trade. HP was compelled to chop down on jobs and even be eluded from the privilege of having Price Water House Cooper’s to take care of its audit. So, even the job of Fiorina was beneath menace. This meant that enchancment within the inner methods of the corporate was not going to be enough for the corporate’s success. Ultimately, the corporate needed to definitely plan out one thing totally different. So, it was determined that the corporate could be buying Compaq in a inventory transaction whose web price was 25 billion . Initially, this merger was not deliberate. It began with a telephonic dialog between CEO HP, Fiorina and Chairman and CEO Compaq, Capellas. The concept behind the dialog was to debate on a licensing settlement nevertheless it continued as a dialogue on aggressive technique and lastly a merger. It took two months for additional research and by September, 2001, the boards of the 2 corporations accredited of the merger. In spite of the choice coming from the CEO of HP, the merger was strongly opposed within the firm. The two CEOs believed that the one strategy to combat the rising competitors in phrases of costs was to have a merger. But the traders and the opposite stakeholders thought that the corporate would by no means be capable to have the loyalty of the Compaq prospects, if merchandise are bought with an HP brand on it. Other than this, there have been questions on the synchronization of the group’s members with one another. This was as a result of of the change within the group tradition as nicely. Even although these had been imagined to severe issues with respect to the merger, the CEO of HP, Fiorina justified the identical with the truth that the merger would take away one severe competitor within the over-provided PC market of these days. She stated that the market share of the corporate is sure to extend with the merger and additionally the working unit would double. (Hoopes, 2001)

Advantages of the Merger

Even although it appeared to be advantageous to only a few individuals to start with, it was the robust willpower of Fiorina that she was capable of stand by her determination. Wall Street and all her traders had gone in opposition to the corporate lampooning her concepts with the saying that she has made 1+1=1.5 by her extravagant methods of growth. Fiorina had put it this manner that after the corporate’s merger, not solely wouldn’t it have a bigger share available in the market but additionally the models of manufacturing would double. This would imply that the corporate would develop tremendously in quantity. Her dream of competing with the giants within the area, IBM would additionally come true. She was of the view that a lot of the redundancy within the two corporations would lower as the inner prices on promotion, advertising and delivery would come down with the merger. This would produce the slightest hurt to the gathering of income. She used the concepts of aggressive positioning to justify her plans of the merger. She stated that the merger relies on the ideologies of consolidation and not on diversification. She might additionally defend allegations in opposition to the change within the HP was. She was of the view that the HP has at all times inspired modifications as it’s about innovating and taking daring steps. She stated that the corporate requires being according to creativity, enchancment and modification. This merger had the aptitude of offering precisely the identical. (Mergers and Acquisitions, 2010)

Advantages to the Shareholders

The following are the methods by which the corporate will be advantageous to its shareholders:

Unique Opportunity: The place of the enterprise is sure to raised with the merger. The purpose for a similar was that now the worth creation could be recent, management qualities would enhance, capabilities would enhance and so would the gross sales and additionally the corporate’s strategic differentiation could be higher than the prevailing opponents. Other than this, one can even entry the capabilities of Compaq straight therefore lowering the associated fee construction in changing into the most important within the trade. Finally, one might additionally see a possibility in reinvesting.

Stronger Company: The profitability is sure to extend within the enterprise, entry and providers sectors in excessive levels. The firm can even see a greater alternative in its analysis and improvement. The monetary situations of the corporate with respect to its EBIT and web money are additionally on the incremental aspect.

Compelling Economics: The anticipated accumulation in IIP features could be 13% within the first monetary yr. The firm might additionally conduct a greater segmentation of the market to forecast its revenues technology. This would go to as a lot as 2 and a half billion of annual synergy.

Ability to Execute: As there could be integration within the planning procedures of the corporate, the probabilities of worth creation would even be large. Along with that the expertise of main a diversified worker construction would even be there. (HP to purchase Compaq, 2001)

Opposition to the Merger

In truth, it was solely CEO Fiorina who was in favor of going with the merger. This is a sensible software of Agency drawback that arises as a result of of change in monetary methods of the corporate homeowners and the administration. Fiorina was sure to lose her job if the merger did not take impact. The purpose was that HP was not capable of meet the demand targets beneath her management. But the homeowners had been in opposition to the merger because of the following beliefs of the homeowners:

The new portfolio could be much less preferable: The place of the corporate as a bigger provider of PCs will surely enhance the quantity of danger and contain lots of funding as nicely. Another essential purpose on this context is that HP’s prime curiosity in Imaging and Printing wouldn’t exist anymore consequently diluting the curiosity of the stockholders. In truth the corporate homeowners additionally really feel that there could be a decrease margin and ROI (return on funding).

Strategic Problems would stay Unsolved: The market place in excessive-finish servers and providers would nonetheless stay in spite of the merger. The value of the PCS wouldn’t come all the way down to be reasonably priced by all. The requisite change in materials for imaging and printing additionally wouldn’t exist. This merger would don’t have any impact on the low finish servers as Dell could be there within the lead and excessive-finish servers both the place IBM and Sun would have the lead. The firm would even be eluded from the benefits of outsourcing as a result of of the excess labor it might have. So, the standard just isn’t assured to enhance. Finally, the merger wouldn’t equal IBM beneath any situation as thought by Fiorina.

Huge Integrated Risks: There have been no examples of success with such large mergers. Generally when the market does not help such mergers, do not do nicely as is the case right here. When HP couldn’t handle its group correctly, integration would solely add on to the difficulties. It could be much more troublesome beneath the situations as a result of of the prevailing competitions between HP and Compaq. Being vulnerable to such dangerous situations, the corporate would additionally should differ its prices inflicting better bother for the proprietor. The largest issue of all is that to combine the tradition current within the two corporations could be a really troublesome job.

Financial Impact: This is generally as a result of the market reactions are destructive. On the opposite hand, the place of Compaq was completely totally different from HP. As the corporate would have a better contribution to the income and HP being diluted on the identical time, the issues are sure to develop. This would imply that drawing cash from the fairness market would even be troublesome for HP. In truth this may not appear to be a really worthwhile merger for Compaq as nicely sooner or later.

The primary drawback that the homeowners of the corporate had with this merger was that it might hamper the core values of HP. They felt that it’s higher to protect wealth quite than to danger it with extravagant danger taking. This excessive danger profile of Fiorina was somewhat unacceptable for the homeowners of the corporate in mild of its prospects.

So, so far as this merger between HP and Compaq is anxious, on aspect there was this robust willpower of the CEO, Fiorina and on the opposite aspect was the robust opposition from the corporate homeowners. This opposition continued from the market together with all of the traders of the corporate. So, this sensible Agency drawback was very well-known contemplating the truth that it contained two of probably the most highly effective corporations on the earth. There had been a quantity of choices like Change Management, Economic sensible Management, and Organizational Management which could possibly be thought-about to research the difficulty. But this case examine will be solved finest by a method sensible evaluation. (HP-Compaq merger faces stiff opposition from shareholders inventory costs fall once more, 2001)

Strategic Analysis of the Case

Positive Aspects

A CEO will at all times think about such a merger to be an event to take a aggressive benefit over its rivals like IBM as on this case and even be of some curiosity to the shareholders as nicely. The following are the methods which are associated to this merger between HP and Compaq:

* Having a watch over shareholders’ worth: If one sees this merger from the eyes of Fiorina, it might be sure that the shareholders have lots to achieve from it. The purpose for a similar is the increment within the management of the market. So, even of the situations weren’t appropriate from the monetary perspective, this reality will surely make lots of income for the corporate sooner or later.

* Development of Markets: Two organizations get entangled in mergers as they wish to develop their market each on the home and the worldwide stage. Integration with a home firm does not want a lot effort however when an organization merges internationally as on this case, a difficult process is on head. A thorough state of affairs scanning is critical earlier than placing your ft in International area. Here, the competitor for HP was Compaq to a big diploma, so this merger definitely required lots of considering. Organizations merge with the worldwide corporations to be able to arrange their manufacturers first and let individuals learn about what they’re succesful of and additionally what they eye sooner or later. This is the rationale that after this merger the merchandise of Compaq would even have the brand of HP. Once the market is nicely-recognized, then HP wouldn’t should endure the branding created by Compaq. They would be capable to draw all the purchasers of Compaq as nicely.

* Propagated Efficiencies: Any firm by buying one other or by merging makes an try so as to add to its efficiencies by rising the operations and additionally having management over it to the utmost extent. We can see that HP would now have an elevated set of workers. The solely issue is that they must be managed correctly as they’re of totally different organizational cultures. (Benefits of Mergers:, 2010)

* Allowances to make use of extra assets: An improvised group of financial assets, mental capital and uncooked supplies provides a aggressive benefit to the businesses. When such corporations merge, many of the intellects come collectively and work in direction of a standard mission to excel with monetary income to the corporate. Here, one cannot deny the truth that even the highest brains of Compaq could be collaborating in forming the methods of the corporate sooner or later.

* Management of dangers: If we significantly take an instance of this case, HP and Compaq getting into into this merger can lower the danger stage they might have diversified enterprise alternatives. The choices for making selection of the availability chain additionally enhance. Now regardless that HP is a pioneer in inkjet orienting, it might not have to make use of the Product based mostly Facility format which is costlier. It can handle the danger of taking course of based mostly facility format and make issues cheaper. Manufacturing and Processing can now be executed in numerous nations in line with the associated fee viability as the foremost difficulty.

* Listing potential: Even although Wall Street and all of the traders of the corporate are in opposition to the merger, when IPOs are supplied, a improvement will certainly be there as a result of of the flourishing earnings and turnover worth which HP could be making with this merger.

* Necessary political laws: When organizations take a leap into different nations, they should think about the totally different laws in that nation which administer the insurance policies of the place. As HP is already a pioneer in all of the international locations that Compaq used to do its enterprise, this could not be of a lot issue for the corporate. The firm would solely must make sure minor laws with the political events of some international locations the place Compaq was flourishing greater than HP.

* Better Opportunities: When corporations merge with one other firm, later they’ll put up on the market as per because the wants of the corporate. This is also executed partially. If HP feels that it might not want a lot of warehouse area it may well promote the identical at elevated income. It relies on whether or not the corporate would now be regarded a s a make to inventory or a make to order firm.

* Extra merchandise, providers, and services: Services get copyrights which reinforces the extent of commerce. Additional Warehouse providers and distribution channels provide enterprise values. Here HP can use all such values built-in with Compaq in order to extend its prospects. (Berry, 2010)

Negative Aspects

There are a quantity of mergers and acquisitions that fail earlier than they really begin to perform. In the important part of implementation itself, the businesses come to know that it might not be useful in the event that they proceed as a merger. This can happen on this merger between HP and Compaq because of the following causes.

Conversations aren’t applied: Because of in contrast to cultures, ambitions and danger profiles; many of the offers are cancelled. As per because the reactions of the homeowners of HP, this appears to be extraordinarily possible. So, motivation amongst the workers is a particularly essential consideration on this case. This requires an additional effort by the CEO, Fiorina. This might additionally assist her keep her place within the firm.

Legal Contemplations: Anti-competitive offers are sometimes restricted by the foundations presiding over the competitors guidelines in a rustic. This results in out of order functioning of one firm and they attempt to separate from one another. A lot of pointless advertising failures get hooked up to those situations. If this occurs on this case, then all that cash which went in publicizing the enterprise would go to be a waste. Moreover, much more could be required to re-promote as a single entity. Even the packaging the place your entire stock from Compaq had the brand of HP must be re-executed, thus hampering the finance even additional. (Broc Romanek, 2002)

Compatibility issues: Every firm runs on totally different platforms and concepts. Compatibility issues usually happen as a result of of synchronization points. In IT corporations reminiscent of HP and Compaq, many issues can happen as a result of each the businesses have labored on totally different methods prior to now. Now, it may not appear essential for the HP administration to make modifications as per as these from Compaq. Thus such issues have change into of best concern today.

Fiscal catastrophes: Both the businesses after signing an settlement hope to have some return on the cash they’ve put in to make this merger occur and additionally need profitability and turnovers. If attributable to any purpose, they aren’t capable of attain that place, then they develop a abhorrence sense in direction of one another and additionally begin charging one another for the failure.

Human Resource Differences: Problems consequently of cultural dissimilarities, hospitality and hostility points, and additionally different conduct associated points can take aside the origin of the merger.

Lack of Determination: When organizations contain, they’ve plans of their minds, they’ve a imaginative and prescient set; however as a result of of a range of issues as talked about above, improvement of the mixed firm to perform its mission is delayed. Merged corporations set the aim and when the aim just isn’t achieved attributable to some faults of any of the 2; then each of them develop a sure diploma of hatred for one another. Also clashes can happen as a result of of bias reactions. (William, 2008)

Risk administration failure: Companies which are concerned in mergers and acquisitions, change into over assured that they will make a revenue out of this determination. This will be seen as with Fiorina. In truth she will be able to combat the entire world for that. When their self-confidence seems into over-confidence then they fail. Adequate danger administration strategies must be adopted which might take care of the results if the choice takes a downturn. These danger insurance policies ought to rule fiscal, productions, advertising, manufacturing, and stock and HR dangers related to the merger.

Strategic Sharing


Hp and Compaq would now have widespread channels so far as their shopping for is anxious. So, the advantages on this concern is that even for these supplies which had been initially of excessive value for HP would now be out there at a less expensive value. The finish customers are additionally prone to enhance. Now, the corporate can re body its aggressive technique the place the best concern will be given to all time rivals IBM. The benefits of this merger within the area of advertising will be seen within the case of shared branding, gross sales and service. Even the distribution process is prone to be enhanced with Compaq taking part in its half. Now, the corporate can stay up for cross promoting, subsidization and additionally a lowered value.


The foremost benefit on this space is that within the location of uncooked materials. Even the processing fashion could be identical making the merchandise and providers synchronized with the concepts and additionally in making an honest operational technique. As the philosophical and mechanical management would even be in widespread, the operational technique would now be to change into the highest most available in the market. In this respect, the 2 corporations would now have co-manufacturing, design and additionally location of workers. So, the operational technique of HP would now be to make use of the method based mostly facility format and perform with the talked about shared values.


The technical technique of the corporate will also be designed in widespread now. There is an obstacle from the angle of the differentiation that HP had within the area of inkjet printers however the benefits are additionally plentiful. With a standard product and course of expertise, the technological technique of the merged firm would promote extremely economical functioning. This will be executed by way of a standard analysis and improvement and designing group.


The shopping for technique of the corporate would additionally observe a standard mechanism. Here, the uncooked supplies, equipment, and energy could be widespread therefore lowering the associated fee as soon as once more. This will be executed by way of a centralized mechanism with a lead purchaser retaining widespread insurance policies in thoughts. Now Hp must assume with an analogous angle for each inkjet printers in addition to private computer systems. This is as a result of the parameters for manufacturing would additionally run on equal grounds.


This is a very powerful half of the methods that may be made after the merger. The corporations would have widespread shareholders for offering the requisite infrastructure. The capital supply, administration fashion, and laws would even be in widespread. So, the infrastructure methods must take these items under consideration. This will be executed by having a standard accounting system. HP does have an choice to have a separate accounting system for the merchandise that it manufactures however that may solely arouse an inner competitors. So, the infrastructural advantages will be made by way of a standard accounting, authorized and human useful resource system. This would make sure that the funding relations of the corporate would enhance. None of the Compaq traders would hesitate in investing if HP follows a standard technique.

HP would now have to make sure one other proven fact that with this merger they might be capable to show opponents to the current goal and these of opponents like IBM as nicely. Even the operations and the output market must be above what exists at current. The firm wants to make sure that the company technique that it makes use of is environment friendly sufficient to assist such a future. The diploma of diversification must be managed totally as nicely. This is as a result of; the merchandise from the 2 corporations have carried out exceptionally nicely prior to now. So, probably the most optimum diploma of diversification is required beneath the context in order that the corporate is ready to meet the calls for of the purchasers. This has been challenged by the homeowners of HP however must be carried by the CEO Fiorina. (Bhattacharya, 2010)

Source by Rohit Agrawal

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